Self-Directed System

How Bullets Work in Shooter Games


  • Shooter
  • Weapon
  • Bullet
  • Victim
  • Hitscan (raycast)
  • Game Object
  • Physics
  • Cheap
  • Expensive


Bullets in video games are usually simulated in two main ways.  The most common way is by using hitscans which consist of raycasting from the shooter’s gun in the direction of the shooter’s aiming cursor.  The first game object that intersects with this raycast is the object that gets hit by the bullet.  This is a cheap method in terms of performance.

The second way bullets are simulated are creating actual bullet game objects in the scene.  This way, physics can be applied to the bullet which consist of gravity, material penetration, and most importantly, collision.  Collision detection is used to determine if the bullet hits another player by using logic to check the colliding object.  This method is expensive performance wise due to more actual game objects and properties being rendered in the scene.

self-directed system

The purpose of this system is to explain how bullets are implemented in video games and show how adding more technical aspects comes with a consequence of slower performance.


Industrial System

Manufacturing Bicycles


  • Aluminum Frame
  • Heat and Cold
  • Auto-grade spray paint
  • Transfer tape
  • Suspension
  • Handle bar
  • Seat
  • Brake
  • Gears
  • Wheels


Aluminum tubes are cut to certain dimensions and are welded together to create the frame.  The frame is then heated intensely and quickly cooled to make it easier to work with.  Paint is sprayed on the frame then transfer tape is applies the logo to the frame.  Suspensions are added to the frame, then handle bar and seat.  Next, the brakes are added, then the gears, and lastly the wheels.

industrial system

The function of this process is to maintain an organized and standard way to create bicycles.  Also, having the frame as the basis of the entire process is probably the most efficient and smartest way to go about building these bikes.


Control/Feedback System

Automatic Sliding Doors


  • Movement / Weight
  • Motion sensor / Weight Sensor
  • Sliding Door
  • People


This system is a very simple and involves a sensor that triggers the door to slide open.  In most cases there is a motion sensor above the door that detects motion in a certain radius.  In other cases, there are weight sensors that could be disguised in a rubber mat in front of the door.  Whenever these sensors are triggered, a signal is generated and is passed to the door telling it to open.

This is a open-loop control system where the signal generated from the sensor is the control.  From my experiences, the signal from the sensor triggers the door to slide open, and then usually after a certain amount of time the door automatically closes.

control system

The purpose of this system is to provide a hands-free way for people to open doors with ease.  It’s especially an important system for people who are unable to or have difficulties opening doors.

Ecological System



  • fishermen
  • population
  • baby fish
  • adult fish
  • fishing contraptions
  • coral reefs


Fishermen often overfish which means they catch and keep fish at a higher rate than the reproduction rate of the fish.  Catching adult fish often dwindles the population overtime since they produce can produce young that are likely to survive till adulthood.  Catching young fish is also just as bad because these fish are removed from the environment before they can replenish the fish that are naturally dying.  Lastly, fishing contraptions like nets, lines and traps damage coral reefs over time which is a natural habitat to many fish and other organisms in the food web.

Ecological System

The purpose of this system is to show how dangerous overfishing is to the entire marine ecosystem as a whole. Damaging the fish population and coral reefs eventually affect other organisms in the marine environment which leads to other problems and so on.

Sociological System

Making a Living Off Youtube


  • Youtube
  • Youtuber
  • Videos
  • Viewers
  • Views
  • Advertisements
  • Money


Youtube is a video sharing platform which involves content creators (Youtubers) making videos that the public (viewers) can watch on this website for free.  Some videos get a ton of views which can result in the creator of that video being payed a decent amount of money from Youtube depending on how many views they are getting.  When these videos get a lot of views, Youtubers have the option to play advertisements within their videos which ad companies pay per ad click or ad view.


sociological system


The purpose of this system is to reward Youtubers for creating content that the public loves to watch.  Thus, this pretty much their full-time job and this is the system that Youtube uses to pay them.

Up Goer Exercise

I find this idea interesting because I have never really knew how these jumping animals with big ears and strong legs are brought to life. Besides the baby making part, what else actually happens during this time? Before I watched moving things on a computer about jumping animals with big ears and strong legs, I thought these animals were brought to life in the same way that humans are except they live in their mom’s warm big space covered with skin and hair until a good age. However, the way they are brought to life is quite different, and uses these words:

  • mom
  • baby making
  • tiny baby
  • baby
  • bag
  • tiny baby food
  • baby food
All of these words help this animal make more of this animal.  Baby making makes a tiny moving baby that moves its way from the mother animal’s opening to the big bag covered with skin.  In this covered bag, the tiny baby gets food until it is ready to leave the bag.  After it leaves the bag, the now bigger baby still needs food from its mother and gets food from her for the next 4 months.
modiefied system
Every baby needs mother’s love, the way that jumping animals loves their kids is that they take their kids with them all the time. Their baby growing very well under their mom’s love. The mother gives their baby enough food when they are still in the bag and when they are outside the bag.

Biological System

Kangaroo Reproduction Process

Western Grey Kangaroos

I find this topic interesting because I honestly never knew the exact process of how kangaroos are reproduced.  Besides the mating part, what else actually happens during this process?  Before I watched this video, I thought kangaroos were born similarly to humans except they live in their mom’s pouch until a certain age.  However, the process is quite different, and involves these elements:

  • mom
  • intercourse
  • embryo
  • pouch
  • embryo milk
  • joey
  • joey milkbaby-kangaroo

All of these elements are interconnected in a way that lets kangaroos reproduce.  Intercourse creates a lima bean sized embryo which crawls its way from the mother’s birth canal to the pouch.  In the pouch, the embryo latches onto its mother’s nipple for 34 weeks and receives embryo milk until it is ready to leave the pouch.  After it leaves the pouch, the joey still needs to be fed from its mother and receives joey milk for the next 4 months.

Biological System

This unique reproduction process helps kangaroos nourish their young ones in a safe and effective way.  Baby kangaroos are too small and helpless to be out on their own, so by using a pouch, they will always be connected with their mother.  Also, since these kangaroos can produce two different types of milk, it allows them to nourish an embryo in their pouch and a joey outside of their pouch at the same exact time.